|Comments Notes for George CALVERT 1st Lord Baltimore|
|There is an excellent biographical article on George Calvert, First Lord Baltimore, and his son Cecilius at http://www.aboutfamouspeople.com/article1020.html [LKH]|
|George Calvert, First Lord Baltimore, statesman and colonizer. |
Born at Kiplin, Yorkshire, England, c. 1580; died in London, England, 15 April, 1632. He graduated from Oxford in 1597. In 1605 he married a daughter of John Mayne, a lady of distinguished family, who died in 1622. He spent some time on the continent, where he met Robert Cecil, the secretary of state. After his return, Calvert was made private secretary to Lord Cecil. He was soon appointed by the king a Clerk of the Crown for the Province of Connaught and the County Clare of Ireland. In 1609 he was sent to Parliament from Bossiney. He was sent on a mission to the French Court in 1610 on the occasion of the accession of Louis XIII. Upon the death of Lord Cecil in 1613, Calvert was made clerk of the Privy Council. Afterwards he was sent by the king to Ireland to report on the success of the policy of bringing the Irish people into conformity with the Church of England. There was a great deal of discontent among the Irish, and several commissions were appointed to hear and report on the grievances. Calvert served on two of these commissions. He became a favorite of King James I. He translated into Latin the argument of the king against the Dutch theologian, Vorstius. In 1617 the order of knighthood was conferred on him and two years later he was appointed principal secretary of state. Spain and France were rivals for English favor. Calvin, believing Spain would be the better friend or more formidable foe, favored the proposed marriage of Charles, Prince of Wales, with the Infanta Maria, daughter of Philip III, although the majority in Parliament were opposed to this union. In the year 1620 the king made Calvert one of the commissioners for the office of treasurer. In 1621 he served in Parliament as a representative from Yorkshire, and in 1624 from Oxford. He was one of the minority that favored the Spanish Court policy. He also tried to be a conciliator between the king and the country party. As a reward for faithful service the king granted him (in 1621) a manor of 2300 acres, in the county of Longford, Ireland, on the condition that all settlers "should be conformable in point of religion." Calvert, becoming a Catholic, in 1624, surrendered this manor, but received it again, with the religious clause omitted. On becoming a Catholic he resigned his secretaryship. The king retained him in his Privy Council and in 1625, elevated him to the Irish Peerage as Baron Baltimore of Baltimore in County Longford. After the death of James, Charles offered to dispense with the oath of religious supremacy, if Calvert would remain in the council, but Calvert declined.
Lord Baltimore purchased a plantation in Newfoundland in 1620, which he called Avalon, and quasi-royal authority was given him. He went to Avalon in 1627 to observe conditions in the province and to establish a colony where all might enjoy freedom in worshipping God. He landed at Fairyland, the settlement of the province, in 1627 and remained till fall. When he returned next spring he brought with him his family, including Lady Baltimore, his second wife, and about forty colonists. On his first visit to Avalon he brought two priests, and on his second visit one priest. After Lord Baltimore's second visit to Avalon, a Protestant minister, Mr. Stourton, went back to England and complained to the Privy Council that his patron was having Mass said in the province, and that he favored the Catholics. No attention, however, was paid to Stourton's complaints. In the war with France French cruisers attacked the English fisheries, and Lord Baltimore's interests suffered heavily.
About 1628 Lord Baltimore requested a new grant in a better climate. In the following year, before word came before the king, he went to Virginia and being a Catholic, was received with various indignities. He returned to England and at first received from Charles a grant of land south of the James River. Meeting opposition from some of the Virginia company, he sought another grant north and east of the Potomac, which he obtained. Before the charter was granted, however, he died. It is claimed that he dictated its provisions. Baltimore's works are "Carmen Funebre in D. Hen. Untonum." in a collection of verses on Sir Henry Unton's death, 1596; "The Answer to Tom Tell-troth: The Practice of Princes and the Lamentations of the Kirk," (1642), a justification of the policy of King James in refusing to support the claim of the Elector Palatine to the crown of Bohemia; various letters and papers of value.
[From the New Advent Catholic Encyclopedia; http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/03192a.htm]
|George and Cecilius Calvert|
First and Second Lord Baltimore
Copyright © John T. Marck
George Calvert was a member of a family that dates back to 1366 in Yorkshire, England. George was born in 1580, in England, at Kipling, in the chapelry of Bolton. His father was Leonard Calvert, a country gentleman, and his mother, Grace Crossland. These two families' coat-of-arms, the Calverts and Crosslands, are used in the design of the Maryland State flag.
At the young age of fourteen, in 1594, George entered Trinity College, Oxford. It was here that he became proficient in Latin, and earned a bachelor's degree in 1597, and an honorary degree of Master of Arts in 1604. In this year on November 22, he married Anne Mynne in St. Peter's, Cornhill, London. Anne was the daughter of George Mynne and Elizabeth Wroth, of Hertingfordbury, Hertfordshire, England. Together George and Anne had eleven children.
1.) Cecil Calvert, second Lord Baltimore, born
August 8, 1605 and died November 30, 1675.
2.) Ann Calvert, born 1607, married William
Peasley in 1627, and died in 1672.
3.) Dorothy Calvert, born 1608, and died January
4.) Elizabeth Calvert, born 1609. Death date
5.) Leonard Calvert, Maryland first governor, born
1610, and died June 9, 1647.
6.) Henry Calvert, born 1611, and died in November
7.) Francis Calvert, born 1612, and died c.1630.
8.) George Calvert, born 1613, and died in 1634 at
9.) Grace Calvert, born 1615, married Robert Talbot
in 1630 at Keldare County, Ireland, and died on
August 15, 1672.
10.) John Calvert, born 1618, and died February
11.) Helen Calvert, born 1619, married James
Talbot, Esq. Death date unknown.
George and Anne divorced about 1622.
In the summer of 1597, upon earning his degree, he traveled throughout the continent, and in doing so, learned the French, Spanish and Italian languages. In 1606, Calvert became the primary secretary to Sir Robert Cecil. Cecil, was the secretary of state and controller of the policy of King James I, (Ruled 1603-1625) and served in this capacity until his death in 1612. Through Sir Robert's influence, Calvert advanced quickly and soon earned the confidence of the king.
Over the years Calvert held many important positions. In 1606, he was made the clerk of the crown of assize and peace in County Clare, Ireland. In 1609, he was made a member of Parliament for Bossiney, in Cornwall; was sent on a special mission for the king to France in 1610; and assisted the king in a theological dispute with Vorstius, a Dutch theologian.
In 1613, Calvert was appointed a clerk of the Privy Council where he also served on a commission to look into religious grievances in Ireland. In 1617, George Calvert was knighted, and two years later, the king, in direct opposition to the desires of the Duke of Buckingham, appointed him the principal secretary of state. In this position, he would serve as a companion to Sir Robert Naunton. By virtue of this position, he was automatically made a member of the Privy Council. In his position as principal secretary of state, he steadfastly discharged vital diplomatic functions. He was a zealous defender in Parliament of the unpopular policies of King James I, especially the negotiations for an alliance with Catholic Spain. In 1624, when these negotiations failed, Calvert lost his seat in Parliament; a position he had held for Yorkshire since 1621. Upon losing his Parliament seat, he was then returned to Parliament without delay as one of the members for the University of Oxford. Upon his return to Parliament, one of the issues facing him was a measure for the persecution of Catholics. Being a Catholic, and having announced his conversion to that faith, he resigned his secretaryship. In February 1625, King James I retained him as a member of the Privy Council and created him Baron of Baltimore, First Lord Baltimore, in the Kingdom of Ireland.
Calvert always had an interest in the colonization of America. This became apparent by his membership in the Virginia Company from 1606 to 1620 and through his admission as one of the council of the New England Company in 1622. In 1620, King James I granted Calvert an increased duty on silk that enabled him to purchase part of the peninsula of Avalon, in the southeastern section of Newfoundland. Two years later he received a grant from the King for the entire country of Newfoundland. In March 1623, a re-grant was issued, restricting his territory to the original peninsula of Avalon. On April 7, 1623, by virtue of a royal charter, was erected into the province of Avalon, the powers of whose lord were regal in kind and inferior only in degree to those of a king. Meanwhile, a small colony had been established there in Ferryland in 1620. Although some buildings were erected, and some planting was done, the colony did not flourish.
In the summer of 1627, Calvert made a short visit to the colony. He returned in 1628 with his second wife, Joanne, whom he married sometime after 1622, and some of his children from his first wife, except his son Cecilius. During the summer of 1628, the colony was attacked by three French ships, whereby several engagements ensued. Because of this, Lord Baltimore appealed to the King for protection.
On March 20, 1628, George and his second wife, Joanne, had one son, Philip. He would go on to marry Anne Wolseley (see page 264). Together, Philip and Anne arrived in Maryland in 1657. They were sent by Cecil Calvert, Second Lord Baltimore to oversee the reestablishment of Lord Baltimore's government which the radical Protestants, with the support of Virginia, had taken over in 1654.
George Calvert disliked the cold, harsh winters. During the period from October to about May, his house was used as a hospital. For these reasons, Calvert appealed to the King for a grant of land in Virginia, where the weather was warmer. Although the King denied this request, Calvert had left for Jamestown where his wife, Lady Baltimore had gone in the fall of 1628, before the King's reply had reached him. The Virginians, who objected to Catholics, treated him badly. To hasten his departure for England, they tendered him the oaths of supremacy and allegiance. In 1632, King Charles I granted the Lord Baltimore the territory extending southward from the James River to the Roanoke River and west to the mountains, as the province of Carolina. However, members of the Virginia Company, resentful of this, opposed such a grant. The King, responding to this opposition, substituted the land. This new territory was between the fortieth degree of north latitude and the Potomac River extending west from the Atlantic Ocean to the longitude of the first source of the river, as the province of Maryland. King Charles I, who ruled from 1625 to 1649, was married to Queen Henrietta Marie, for whom Maryland was named.
On April 13, 1632, George Calvert, first Lord Baltimore died, before the charter had passed the great seal, or was issued. This charter, which was copied from that of Avalon, had the date of June 20, 1632, and thus was issued to George's son, Cecilius.
George Calvert, was very diligent and a most trustworthy public servant, who maintained an earnest intent for the welfare of England. With the charter of Maryland, he laid the foundation for one of the most successful governments in the American colonies. George Calvert was buried April 15, 1632, at St. Dunstan's Church, England.
Cecil or Cecilius Calvert, succeeded to the title of second Lord Baltimore upon his father, George's death. Cecil Calvert married the Catholic Anne Arundell, the daughter of Thomas Arundell in 1629. Anne Arundel County, Maryland is so named after Lady Anne Arundell. Cecil and Anne had two children, one son, and one daughter.
Cecil Calvert was raised a Catholic and attended Trinity College, Oxford, England. Upon his father's death, Cecil inherited the title, the Irish estates, and about twelve million acres of land, in what would become Maryland. He served as the first designer and Lord Proprietor of the Maryland colony from 1632 to 1675.
Although he never visited America, he proficiently preserved his charter rights from adversaries over the course of several decades. He established Maryland on a sturdy and wealthy footing, to the depletion of his personal fortune. Additionally, he consistently promoted religious toleration for all Christians living in his colony.
Cecil Calvert died on November 30, 1675. His only son, Charles, served as governor of Maryland from1661 to 1676, and the third Lord Baltimore from 1675 to 1715.
Copyright © John T. Marck. All Rights Reserved. This article and their accompanying pictures, photographs, and line art, may not be resold, reprinted, or redistributed for compensation of any kind without prior written permission from the author. [http://www.aboutfamouspeople.com/article1020.html]
|From "Calvert Genealogy": George was the son of Leonard and Alicia (de Crossland ) Calvert. George was born around 1580 in Kiplin Hall, Bolton-on-Swale. At fourteen he was at Oxford (this was in 1594) where he graduated in 1597. He became secretary to a leading gentleman in English government, Robert Cecil. With Cecil as a mentor and with encouragement from King James I, George attained a seat in Parliament, became a member of Privy Council, and became secretary of state. This much responsibility brought obvious difficulties however, and it became necessary for him to defend James I's unpopular Continental diplomacy. He also actively examined Irish grievances. He acquired knighthood in 1617 and converted to Catholicism, then resigned as secretary of state. As a reward for his services the King titled him Baron Baltimore, and George Calvert became the First Lord Baltimore. |
Baron Baltimore had been interested in the American colonies for years and had invested in the Virginia Company (in Jamestown). He was a member of the Council for New England. In 1623 he obtained a charter to be a founder of a new private colony in Newfoundland, and had feudal control over this land, a medieval authority. This allowed him to award titles of nobility in his new colony which he called Avalon. In 1627 he visited Avalon and his wife, Anne Mynne, daughter of George Mynne, Esquire of Herfordshire, went on to Virginia. Later, her ship was lost at sea. Baron Baltimore, George Calvert found Newfoundland to be a struggling colony and decided to invest further in Virginia. He was not well received in Virginia and applied for a land grant for an area north of Virginia and he received the land grant for Maryland via his son Cecilius Calvert, 2nd Baron Baltimore (because George had died).
Maryland was named after the new King's wife, Henrietta Maria, Maryland was settled by the Calvert's in 1634 by Cecilius' brother Leonard Calvert who became one of the first settlers of Maryland.389
|Last Modified 1 Nov 2001||Created 8 Feb 2007 Laura K. Henderson|